Researching and creating the front cover image for Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

Sunday, 7 May 2017

I was delighted to learn this weekend that pledging levels for my illustrated translation of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight has now reached 50%. Among the different pledge options are those which include either an original linocut print or an artist quality giclee print of the Green Knight himself, the same image which will also feature on the front of the book. Here I give an insight into how the image was created - and how you might acquire a copy.

How is the Green Knight described?

We are introduced to the Green Knight in Fitt 1 (part 1) of the poem. When the knight enters the hall, the poet says this "most awful man" is "half giant in that hall I'd happen he were" and the "highest beyond measure of the men at that meal". We are told this not because the man is a giant - this would be unfeasible - but for poetic effect. He is of a size greater than all the others in King Arthur's court in order to create a miraculous appearance in the minds of those listening to the poem itself.

He is also distinguished by his colour, enker (entirely) green. This has contemporary significance as the colour of the underworld and also of the devil. His skin, hair, beard, clothes and even the blauner (ermine) of this hood are all the same colour, as is his horse. He bears in his hand a holly bough - which remains green even when the winter's woods are bare. He is, to a mediaeval listener, something truly from another - darker - world.

The poet gives us exquisite detail concerning the nature of the knight's clothing and that of his horse. He wears tight fitting hose and garments which hug his form in the latest style of the fourteenth century. He also wears a jacket trimmed with ermine at cuff, hem and round his hood. His mighty axe - described initially as a guisarme (what we might understand as perhaps resembling a later bardische) - has an enormous blade which nearly touches the handle at one end. The saddle, caparison and fittings of the horse are all exquisitely described by the poet to create an impression of a man who, though dangerous, is also courtly and dressed in the latest fine style.

What constitutes contemporary fashion?

(image courtesy of Wikipedia/ the British Library)

The description given of the Green Knight's appearance is precise and meticulous; the poet wants us to see him as contemporary with his late fourteenth century audience. So in producing this linocut image, I am drawn myself to contemporary illuminated manuscripts of the period. What I have found by my research is that the late fourteenth century had a distinct sartorial quality all of its own; all of these cues and references I have borrowed for the illustrations which accompany my translation.

In terms of the Green Knight himself, I have based his gown on those of nobles and kings shown in contemporary French and English documents. His guisarme is borrowed from that shown in the original illustrations in Cotton Nero A.x in the British Library (see above). The horse trappings I have taken from many varied illuminations of the period to ensure that the appearance is contemporary and correct.

Finally, I like to base my work on the slightly "amateurish" illustration style of mediaeval scribes: men appear out of proportion with themselves and sit strangely on their mounts. It is worth saying that the illustrations accompanying the original manuscript are of a particularly poor quality and not the work of a professional illuminator; notwithstanding, in their depiction of everything from the shoes and doublets worn to the open crown of the king, they resolutely assert the period in which the poem was written.

The setting for my image borrows heavily from fourteenth century hunting manuals and rural depictions - but with a little bit of Bawden and Ravillious thrown in to add a touch of contemporary inspiration. The stars are intended to represent the sparks flying from the horses hooves; stars their own role to play in the poem too - particularly in Fitt 2, when we are told about Gawain's own five points of virtue as emphasised by the star on his shield. 

Creating the linocut

Beginning work - every linocut starts like this!

The creation of the linocut plates for my final image, to quote from Adrian Belew, took hours and hours.The image is made from three different plates for each of the colours used; all cut by hand meticulously so that the "un-inked" parts do not catch any ink at all. Below I am inking up the yellow plate:

Inking the yellow plate - one of three which make up the final print

Each plate then has to be meticulously registered to ensure that all the colours fall in the right place when each inked plate is pressed. One slip or loss of concentration will ruin the final print. As can be seen from the image below, once I am pulling the print on the Albion press, there is no going back - you simply will not see what has happened until you have removed the print from the press.

Winding the print into the Albion press, a wonderful 19th Century printing press

The final print - the Green Knight comes alive again for the 21st Century!

The result of a day at the printing press, hopefully, is a series of images which make it to edition status. Editioned prints are carefully examined for errors and registration before finally being signed and numbered by the artist - in this case me!

Two prints which make it to "edition status" - to be numbered and signed by the artist

The result of all this work is, hopefully, a delightful image. In this case the Green Knight appears in three colours which serve to blend with each other: yellow, blue and aubergine. That's right! No green - I do all my print-making using the wet-on-wet method to create new colours from those I am using.

The finished print - this one freshly framed so still wrapped in its protective film

Let the Green Knight grace your home!

I am delighted that Unbound want to use this image for the cover of my translation of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight when it reaches fully funded status. So there are three different pledging options available which enable you to acquire a version of this print:

  1. Original Print Pledge - Two signed and personally dedicated copies of the first edition of the book plus ebook plus a framed ORIGINAL, hand-pulled linocut print of the Green Knight in the Forest. There are only three framed, original linocut prints availble. PLEASE NOTE: At time of posting, one of these pledges has already been taken up so, if you'd like to own one of these wonderful prints yourself, please do pledge now! Pledge value £450.
  2. Dedicated Print Pledge - One signed and personally dedicated copy of the first edition of the book plus ebook plus an artist quality giclee print featuring the linocut of The Green Knight in the Forest. The giclee process is a very high quality Artist Guild reproduction of the linocut and printed on 250gsm Somerset Velvet paper. The pledge also includes a personally dedicated copy of the first edition of the book + ebook. Pledge Value £125
  3. Print Pledge - A signed copy of the book plus ebook plus a giclee print featuring the linocut of The Green Knight in the Forest. The giclee process is a very high quality Artist Guild reproduction of the linocut and printed on 250gsm Somerset Velvet paper. The pledge also includes a personally dedicated copy of the first edition of the book + ebook. Pledge Value £100

I do hope you have enjoyed this post. I am grateful to everyone who has pledged so far and helped my illustrated translation of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight achieve 50% funding to date. I am truly honoured by the support and good wishes I have received.

Michael Smith

 

 

 

 

 

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Writing in progress
Publication date: TBC
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317 backers